Wednesday, July 1, 2020
Both William Shakespeare, likely the greatest English playwright of all time, and Henrik Ibsen, arguably one of the most brilliant and influential modern dramatists, are known not only for the power of their tragedies but also for their memorable female characters. Among the most famous of these is ShakespeareÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Ophelia, HamletÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s doomed lover, and Hedda Gabler, IbsenÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s most enduring female villain. At first glance, these two women do not have many similarities: dutifully obedient Ophelia suffers passively between her fatherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s demands and HamletÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s mockery, while Hedda is scornful and manipulative to all those around her. However, upon more careful inspection, it becomes clear that the two characters have much more in common than simply being tragic female figures. In fact, it is their common gender that makes them remarkably similar. Hedda and Op helia ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ though created hundreds of years apart ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ are both helplessly (although sometimes subconsciously) influenced by the expectations of the men that surround them. Furthermore, thus indoctrinated in masculine hierarchies, both women are trapped in the social structures that these hierarchies propagate, rendered incapable of introspection or amending their positions. Finally, at the end of their respective plays, these very power structures that restrict the two women are the ones that ultimately leave them no choice but to break them: Ophelia descends into madness, and she and Hedda are forced to take their own lives.Though Hedda and Ophelia are players who are engaged through radically different worlds and social settings, the link of gender difference between the two is undeniable. Indeed, as John Russell Brown argues in his ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Representing Sexuality in ShakespeareÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Plays,ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ ¬? nearly all modern dramatists cannot deny the influence of Shakespeare, especially when interrogating traditional gender hierarchies: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"So many plays deal outright withgender difference that anyone wishing to study or stage them needs to only to ask how Shakespeare dealt with these subjectsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (169). This is especially the case in Hamlet, in which gender difference is ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"not centralÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Brown 169) to the play, but also in which it is glaringly apparent that the female characters are influenced by the expectations of the men surrounding them.The most obvious example of this working of masculine influence can be found in the beginning of the play, when the audience is first introduced to the character of Ophelia. The third scene of the opening act begins with Laertes instructing his sister to be wary of HamletÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s affections: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"The chariest maid is p rodigal enough / If she unmask her beauty to the moonbest safety lies in fearÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.36-7, 43). Though Ophelia seems to take his message to heart, she cannot help but comment on her brotherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s own hypocrisy: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Do not / Show me the steep and thorny way to heavenÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? while he, on his ventures into Paris, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"himself the primrose path of dalliance treadsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.48, 50). Notably, Laertes impatiently brushes aside his sisterÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s comment (ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"I stay too longÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.53)), and, on cue, Polonius enters to confirm the double standard that his son has set forth. Polonius dispatches his son to Paris to sow his wild oats, to learn that ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"to thine own self [one must be] trueÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.78). However, as Juliet Dusinberre remarks in her discourse on women and authority i n Shakespeare, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"[PoloniusÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢] daughter must not rely on her own judgmentÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (94). Even her conviction of HamletÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s sincerity arouses her fatherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s contempt: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"You speak like a green girl / think yourself a baby / That you have taÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢en these tenders for true pay / Which are not sterlingÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.101, 105-107). Just as Laertes expects Ophelia to regard his advice as valuable even in its hypocrisy, so Polonius makes sure that ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"her whole education is geared to relying on other peopleÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s judgmentsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94). This ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"educationÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? is complete and in full force when Ophelia is sent to spy on the supposedly insane Hamlet. When Polonius comments ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"IÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬Ã âÃâ¢ll loose my daughter to himÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (2.2.162) it is apparent that not only OpheliaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s sexuality, but her judgment and her conscience, are the property of her father. By ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"allowing herself to acquiesceÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94) to the deception of Hamlet, and thus to the overwhelming influence of the men around her, she is not only being false to her lover, but inevitably ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"false to herselfÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94).The case that dutiful and deferential Ophelia is unquestionably influenced by the men around her is easy to make. But what about the willful Hedda, who seems not only to scorn but also to control the emotions of the men around her? Tesman, her husband, would presumably be the largest influence on Hedda. Yet, next to his wife, the mediocre scholar seems almost effeminate, having only Aunt Julie as ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"both father and mother to [him]Ã Æ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Ibsen 216). Indeed, just as Hamlet might rebuke himself for his own inaction, Hedda seems to do the same Tesman, whose effeminate ineptitude dictates that he ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Must like a whore unpack [his] heart with wordsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Shakespeare 2.2.589), never truly becoming what Hedda wants him to be. What Hedda longs for is not ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"a contemptible onlooker on the worldÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 278) but ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Finally ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ an actionÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Ibsen 280). She never finds the latter in Tesman.Nonetheless, delving deeper into IbsenÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s drama, one can easily see that Hedda has been indoctrinated just as much, but not as explicitly, as her Shakespearean predecessor. Very early in the play, even before Hedda enters, it is apparent that she has inherited some kind of lifestyle expectations from her father: Aunt Julie, while listening to BertaÃÆ'Ã ¢ ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s fears about Hedda, remarks ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"General GablerÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s daughter ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ the way she lived in the GeneralÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s day!ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (214). Significantly, we are introduced to Hedda not by her own name, but by immediate association with her father. Later, when Aunt Julie meets Hedda in person, it becomes even clearer that Hedda has some great stake in the social expectations impressed upon her: after mistaking Aunt JulieÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s hat for the maidÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s, then seeing her out with Tesman, Hedda exasperatedly remarks, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"But where did she get her manners, flinging her hat aroundPeople donÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t act that wayÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (222). This obsession with the proper way to act, especially for fear of a scandal, takes on a particularly masculine tint when Hedda learns that her old schoolmate, Mrs. E lvsted, has come to town without permission. As Mrs. Elvsted asserts that ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"My husband doesnÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t know that IÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢m goneÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (229) Hedda immediately replies in surprise, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"What, your husband doesnÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t know?ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (229). Furthermore, she implicitly assumes that Mrs. Elvsted will be returning to him shortly: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"What do you think your husband will say when you go home again?ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (229). Despite her contempt for her own husband, Hedda would never leave him ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ she has been too much indoctrinated in a masculine social hierarchy. She naturally assumes that Mrs. Elvsted has not left her husband for good: when HeddaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s schoolmate replies to her question of returning home, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Up there, to him?ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Ibsen 230), Hedda answer s, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Of course, of courseÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (230). To Hedda, a woman can never leave a spouse, who, no matter how effeminate, is male and therefore necessary to be attached to. One can even see scraps of the ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"educationÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? that Laertes and Polonius seek to give Ophelia in their ensuing conversation. When Mrs. Elvsted describes to Hedda the work she has done with Eilert Lovborg, she adds that he has ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"taught me to think, to understand all sorts of thingsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (230). Like Hedda, the reader is ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"concealing an involuntary smileÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (230), knowing that the only thing Lovborg probably taught Mrs. Elvsted was to ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"understand thingsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? just as he does. However, this smile can also be reserved for Hedda herself, for clearly she has been taught how to think just as Mrs. Elvsted has ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ wit hin a male-dominated social framework.Hedda and Ophelia are thus left to operate in a world of strictly male-influenced expectations that both women, clearly affected by the men around them, feel themselves implicitly required to uphold. The significant result of this influence is not only that both women are trapped in a masculine social structure, but also that they lack the capability for introspection ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ for fully comprehending the consequences of the social hierarchy and its direct effect on them. Again, in OpheliaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s case, the effect of her father and brotherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s influence is obvious. HamletÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s lover, as Dusinberre suggests, is irrevocably ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"chained into femininity by PoloniusÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (306), a father to whom her chastity must be forever placed above all else. Indeed, Ophelia is inextricably implanted in a social structure that speaks of her virgi nity in monetary terms: Polonius warns his daughter to ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Tender yourself more dearlyÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.107) in her dealings with Hamlet. Under the strict influence of her father, Ophelia becomes little more than property, but more significantly has no chance or right to develop an individual capacity for reason apart from her father. Since her entire education under Polonius ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"is geared toplacing the reputation for chastity above even the virtue of truthfulnessÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94), Ophelia effectively has ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"no moral sense of [her] ownÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94). The right to her own sexuality and the right to her own judgments are both inextricably liked to Polonius. Thus, Ophelia must see the world in menÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s terms. She simply does not have the ability to reflect on her position in the social hierarchy instilled in her by her father, nor can she eve r have it: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Her reason has not been educated to exercise itself without his guidanceÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94). Indeed, this femininity is so deeply ingrained in her that to expunge it completely, she must lose her reason; instead of succumbing to her father, she must succumb to madness.For Hedda, again, the influence of the social hierarchy in which she is trapped is more subtle. Unlike Ophelia, Hedda will and does question the motivations of those around her. IbsenÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s tragic female even seems to have a very villainous streak: she manipulates everyone around her, with inconsequential social incidents or larger, destructive actions. When Hedda wishes to talk with Mrs. Elvsted alone, she merely prods Tesman to write a letter. Always deferential, he complies, and to a questioning Mrs. Elvsted Hedda replies, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"DidnÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t you see that I wanted him out of the way?ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã âÃâ¬? (Ibsen 227). Later, when speaking alone with Judge Brack, Hedda admits to other little games: referring to her ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"little run-inÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (242) with Aunt Julie, she reveals that she had purposely meant to fluster TesmanÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s old aunt: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"SheÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢d put her hat down there on that chair (Looks at him smiling.) and I pretended I thought it was the maidÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢sÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Ibsen 242). Hedda appears to be very content with the joke, until Judge Brack pauses to question her motives. A change of mood occurs: she nervously replies, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Oh, you know ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ these thing just come over me like that and I canÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t resist themI canÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t explain it, even to myselfÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (242). Hedda knows that she isnÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t happy, that something is la cking in her life, yet she canÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t turn to herself and explain it. She is supposed to be relieved that she is married, having, as she says, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"danced myself outÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (239) by the age of twenty-nine. Nonetheless, she must revert to manipulative games (ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"What in GodÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s name am I to do with myself?ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (237)) to satisfy a need for control simply because she cannot control her own life. To Hedda, her existence is wrapped up in the social structure that she feels she needs to uphold. Essentially, as Bradbrook asserts in her discussion on Hedda as a stage character, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Hedda has neither self-awareness nor responsibility Although she is once or twice seen alone, there is nothing in the play that could be called a soliloquy from herÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (qtd. Lyon 79).Thus, while Hamlet may soliloquize all he wants about action and in act ion, Hedda must conform to the dictates of her social structure. Ironically, as Bradbrook points out, Hedda is a character for whom we have no inner monologue: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"she is shown entirely in actionÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (qtd. Lyon 79). Yet because she is so embedded in the hierarchy of which she is a part, she cannot consciously take action, and she simply attributes her need to play control games, like with Aunt Julie, to other causes: she sighs to Brack, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"I often think I only have one talentboring the life right out of meÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (244). While Hedda, indoctrinated in her social beliefs, thinks that boredom is a cause, it actually is merely a symptom of the lack of control that she feels. Indeed, even the fact the Hedda must use this type of speech indicates that, as Charles Lyons argues in his socio-linguistic analysis of IbsenÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s dialogue, HeddaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s language ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ãâ Ãâ¬ÃâÃÅ"is the language of the oppressedÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (21). In a world of male-dictated expectations and social structures, Hedda, like Ophelia, has no real control over her own life or decisions.As Hedda remarks to Tesman, however, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"there is always a way outÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Ibsen 256). Unlike the men who surround them, though, Ophelia and Hedda are trapped in a social structure that will not allow them to truly realize its full effects nor react without harsh reprimand or, what Hedda fears most, scandal. Thus, while HeddaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s comment is true, both female characters are left with little choice. As Dusinberre asserts, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Polonius allows Ophelia no identity independent of his rule, a condition which makes her incapable of coping with a world in which he has no partÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (94). Upon her fatherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s murder, then, Ophelia must escape into madness and her co nsequent suicide: Polonius has left her no other option. PoloniusÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢ warning to his daughter that HamletÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"will is not his ownÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1.3.17) rings strangely false: while Hamlet may freely ponder the existential decision of life or death, Ophelia has no such luxury. Her only way to free herself of her fatherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s grasp, her only course for true action, is what Dusinberre calls her ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"revolt of insanityÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (261). Thus, when Claudius laments, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Poor Ophelia / Divided from herself and her fair judgmentÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (4.5.84-85), ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"the irony lies in the fact that she was never allowed to have any judgmentÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (Dusinberre 94). A different but comparable scenario applies to Hedda. Consumed by her need for control, but for lack of any better outlet, she must con stantly turn away from taking hold of her own life and instead strive to change the life of a man. In Tesman, she is hopeless ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ she is convinced that there is no greatness in him. Thus, by the end of the drama, her need for power over something, since it cannot be herself, has reached a fever pitch. She finds an opportunity for action that she could never find in her husband when a devastated Lovborg converses with her about his manuscript. Lovborg, in his despair, asserts that he only wants to ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"put an end to it allÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (272). Hedda, snatching one of her pistols, gives it to him as a souvenir, imploring him, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Do it beautifully, Eilert Lovborg. Promise me thatÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (272). Even when LovborgÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s suicide is openly reported, Hedda, relieved by such ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"action,ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? comments, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"IÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬Ãâ Ãâ¢m saying that here, in this ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ there is beautyÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (280). To Hedda, no greater relief can come from a true action; more significantly, the only true action and release that she now understands is taking oneÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s own life, as she asserts, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"This act of Eilert LovborgÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ thereÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s a sense of liberation in itÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (283). Thus, when Brack threatens to implicate her in LovborgÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s death, Hedda immediately sees no other way out: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"IÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢d rather dieÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (284). Like Ophelia, who is forced into madness, Hedda is effectively forced into suicide: the lack of control becomes too much, and the only true action she understands is death. Even after asserting, upon HeddaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s death, that ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ "people donÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢t do such thingsÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (286) (an oft-repeated phrase of HeddaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s, ingraining her into her social structure), there still seems to be an echo of HeddaÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s only truly liberating words: ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Finally ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ an actionÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (280).Though their two characters vary greatly, ShakespeareÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Ophelia and IbsenÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Hedda Gabler are both inevitably trapped together simply by the fact that they are female. Both Ophelia and Hedda are highly influenced by the men that surround them ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ Ophelia directly and overtly by her brother and father, and Hedda by the overarching social figures of father and husband. Because of the expectations of these male figures, neither Ophelia nor Hedda can transcend the social structure created for them. Ophelia, with no real sense of reason or judgment, must rely completely on her father; and Hedda, though sensing her lack of control, can only detect the symptoms of her imposed social hierarchy, and seek to control others rather than herself. Inevitably, the power structures that restrict both these women are the ones that eventually leave them no other choice but to drastically expunge the expectations placed upon them: Ophelia casts off her fatherÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s judgment through descent into madness and suicide, while Hedda seeks true action and control in taking her own life. For Hedda and Ophelia, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"to be or not to beÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? never really was the question; since both women were never truly allowed to exist independently from the beginning, their only choice in the end lay in madness and death.Works CitedBrown, John Russell. ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Representing Sexuality in ShakespeareÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Plays.ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? Shakespeare and Sexuality. E d. Catherine Alexander and Stanley Wells. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.Dusinberre, Juliet. Shakespeare and the Nature of Women. New York: St. MartinÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Press, 1996.Ibsen, Henrik. ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"Hedda Gabler.ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? Four Major Plays. Trans. Rick Davis and Brian Johnston. Lyme, New Hampshire: Smith and Krause, 1995.Lyons, Charles R. Hedda Gabler: Gender, Role and World. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991.Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. Harold Jenkins. London: The Arden Shakespeare, Thomson Learning, 2001.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
At the conclusion of his letter dated December 7, 2015. Mr. Jonathan Lovekin, the Senior Engineering Geologist for the Colorado Geological Survey stated that the geologic hazards at this site are challenging and have not been fully evaluated or addressed at that time. However, he did conclude by saying Ã¢â¬Å"we agree that they can be mitigated to allow the proposed residential use and density.Ã¢â¬ In February, Rickie Davies, Senior Planner in the Engineering Department commented in an email to you that Eagle County Land Use Regulation Section 4-420.D.1 - Development in Areas Subject to Geologic Hazards states, Review of development that is subject to the provisions of this Section 4-420, and shall require referral of the application to theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The topographic model used in the rockfall analysis must incorporate any planned cuts at the building sites.Ã¢â¬ Subsequent to this comment, the applicant did request HP Kumar (HP Geotech) conduct a rockfall analysis of the current conditions of the property to determine possible issues for the lower three lots. (A copy of the report was provided to the County previously and it is attached to this letter for reference.) While the assessment cannot take into account final site conditions for lots 4 and 5, which will not be determined until there is a specific construction plan for each lot, it does show that reasonable mitigation is possible under the current conditions. HP Kumar/Golder Associates Findings: a. It is possible for rocks embedded in the slope to dislodge and begin rolling, but this is unlikely without significant disturbance of the ground surface. Boulders that are lying on the ground surface, such as those observed just below Cedar Drive, could be disturbed by various causes and begin rolling. Rockfall initiating from these areas was considered in our analysis as the most likely source. A detailed inventory of available source rocks was not conducted but we observed several rounded and sub-rounded basalt and sandstone bouldersShow MoreRelatedMount Baker in Bellingham, Washington Essay1226 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages140 miles between Seattle, Washington and Vancouver, Canada. 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Geologic sequestration is also practical and economically feasible since the initial capital is not high compared toRead MoreSpatial Water Quality Analysis Of Vadodara District Using Geo Informatics Tools1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis Of Vadodara district Using Geo Informatics Tools Suman Agrawal , Dr. H.M.Patel ,Indra Prakash3, Ajay Patel4 Abstract: The Vadodara District, covering an area of 7788 km2 is occupied by varied type of geological formations ranging from Archaean to recent. Ground water samples from 65 locations of the watershed bounded by north latitude 21Ã °49Ã¢â¬â¢19Ã¢â¬ and 22Ã °48Ã¢â¬â¢37Ã¢â¬ and east longitude 72Ã °51Ã¢â¬â¢05Ã¢â¬ and 74Ã °16Ã¢â¬â¢55 were collected. The collected samples are distributed overRead MoreStaff Had The Opportunity For Review The Previous Version Of The Subject Proposed Article1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesactual and potential effects of petroleum and gas exploration, production, and storage activities: 1.1. Gas/vapor intrusion in enclosed structures such as residences, etc.: identification of potential exposure, prevention and mitigation 1.2. Explosion hazard due to gas and vapor intrusion: identification of explosion potential, prevention, mitigation and emergency response procedures 1.3. Potential seismic risk and how to address this risk by identifying prone areas, and more stringent permitting requirementsRead MoreTsunamis: How Oregon Can Better Prepare for Cascadia Essay1295 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Tsunami hazard assessment in Oregon started with an inundation simulation in the Siletz Bay. Various parameters were tested with different inundation estimates and run-up from past tsunami deposits (Priest, 2001, 55). Inundation maps were then created furthermore in the Oregon Building Code, Oregon limited construction of new important or hazardous buildings in tsunami inundation zones indicated by the inundation maps. Zones that these maps are based on use the Cascadia event in 1700 as a Ã¢â¬Å"mostRead MoreReview of Related Literature of Volcano Tourism in the Philippines2183 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthrough these papers, one would have an overview of needs and possibilities of such developments. It is said that volcano tourism is a rare tourism resource. Author Gu o Jinjie of Greenpeace China has pointed the value of the landscape features and geological structures volcanoes possess. This implies that developments around the vicinities of volcanoes are site specific as volcanoes takes many forms and natural features. Aside from the features of this natural wonder, the presence of different sectorsRead MoreMercury Poisoning and 1990 S When Mercury Mining Essentially Stopped2251 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmercury, dental amalgams, and ambient airÃ¢â¬ (Brigham, 2003). There are many ways that mercury can become airborne into our atmosphere and eventually deposited back to the earth. Ã¢â¬Å"Mercury is emitted by natural sources, such as volcanoes, geothermal, geologic deposits, and the ocean. Human-related sources primarily include coal combustion, waste incineration, industrial uses, and mining. During the last 150 years, human activities have more than doubled natural amounts of mercury in the atmosphereÃ¢â¬ (BrighamRead More2010 Chile Earthquake Case Study2698 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagescoast, nearby offshore islands, and areas near the epicenter. In addition to the tsunami, the earthquake had many other geological consequences including aftershocks, terrestrial and submarine land-sliding, elevation changes, and a gravity shift. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the earthquake, its consequences, the resulting damages, and mitigation. 2. Geologic Setting Figure 1: Profile of area around the epicenter (Moscoso, et.al., 2011) The site of the main event lies ~
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Organization According to the article President Bush announced on April 18, 1991 he wanted to achieve six national education goals by the year 2000. . There are six objectives: (1) To guarantee that every child starts school ready to learn; (2) To raise the high school graduation rate to 90%; (3) To ensure that every student leaving the 4th, 8th, and 12th grades can demonstrate competence in core subjects; (4) To make students fir it in the world in math and science achievements; (5) To ensure that every adult is literate and has the skills necessary to compete in a global economy and is able to fulfill the duties of citizenship; and (6) To free American schools I from drugs and violence so that learning can occur. Acknowledging that the White House tact sheet had accompanying the act the transformation of American education was considered for a number of reasons. The main reason was that 8 years following the publication of A Nation at Risk (1983), educational results had not significantly improved. Second, our global participants and trading partners were taking education seriously while American students were near the backbone of the pack in international comparisons. Understandably, a principal function of the legislative initiatives was to achieve competitive academic excellence, which would contribute to improved international economic competitiveness. Discuss Changes and/or Reforms to Education The study of special training is experiencing significant reform. AShow MoreRelated The War in Iraq Being an Oil Currency War Essay4124 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesthe Iraq war is the quiet acknowledgement by respected oil geologists and possibly this administration is the impending phenomenon known as Global Peak Oil. This is projected to occur around 2010, with Iraq and Saudi Arabia being the final two nations to reach peak oil production. The issue of Peak Oil has been added to the scope of this essay, along with the macroeconomics of `petrodollar recycling and the unpublicized but genuine challenge to U.S. dollar hegemony from the euro as an alternativeRead MoreVeterans From The First Gulf War2672 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesthe region, neighboring countries such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called to western countries like the United States for aid and protection. After Hussein ignored all United Nation orders to withdraw from Kuwait, United States forces entered the Middle East in January 1 991 (Staff H, 2009). Ordered by President George H.W Bush, relentless allied attacks were made on the Iraqi forces which led to their surrender. Though this win was a giant success for the allied forces, tension only rose nearly a decadeRead MoreRupert MurdochÃ ¬Ã ¥S Media Monopoly5481 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesBibliography Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦. p. 17 Introduction The following term paper deals with the development of television from its early beginnings in the 1920s up to now. My attention focuses on the powers which influence what is shown on TV and the analysis of methods they use in order to manipulate the public opinion. Outlining the success story of this important means of mass media at the beginning of the first chapter, I will then explain the effects of globalisation on the TV market. ConsideringRead More Public Opinion and Television Essay5264 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesof information presented on TV. Introduction The following term paper deals with the development of television from its early beginnings in the 1920s up to now. My attention focuses on the powers which influence what is shown on TV and the analysis of methods they use in order to manipulate the public opinion. Outlining the success story of this important means of mass media at the beginning of the first chapter, I will then explain the effects of globalisation on the TV market. ConsideringRead MoreCountrywide Subprime Lending Crisis4911 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesthese borrowers have lower credit scores and/or other credit deficiencies that prevent them from qualifying for prime mortgages. Subprime borrowers pay premium above the prime market rate in order to compensate the lender for bearing greater default risk. In addition, subprime borrowers pay higher origination and continuous costs, such as applications fees, appraisal fees, mortgage insurance payments, late fees and fines for delinquent payments. 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WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE? - For our purpose we have provided: Ã¯â · Theoretical studies; Ã¯â · Data collection from: Internet Books Magazine-interviews Film Ã¯â · Comparison of collected data and analysis with the materials studied so far; Page 5 NELOSN MANDELAÃ¢â¬â¢S LEADERSHIP June 6, 2012 LITERATURE REVIEW WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s leadershipRead More Impact of Terrorist Attacks on Tourism and How to Prevent Acts of Terrorism3146 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesSwarbrooke, 2004). If tourists feel threaten and scared that they will be victims of an attack, they will not travel over sees or participate in tourism related activities. Thirdly, attacking tourists rather than the native population lowers the risk of losing the support of other countries (Horner Swarbrooke, 2004). If terrorists attack the native population, they will lose the support of an undeveloped and developed country. They will be seen as enemies rather than heroes. Lastly, whileRead MorePolitical Science 102 : The American Presidency2170 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Political scientists have long debated what sways voters in presidential elections, and whether a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign and personality can transcend the economic fundamentals that face the nation. Although a slew of statistical studies and literature argue on both sides of this debate, a historical analysis demonstrates that economic fundamentals drive general election results. A range of studies show that the electorate responds to economic performance, although votersÃ¢â¬â¢ measures of economic well-beingRead MoreGovernment Intervention Paper: Lehman Brothers5371 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesto illuminate the four year-old questions still hanging around regarding the financial crisis of 2007-2009. For example, this study will detail the events that led to the problem at Lehman Brothers. What was the exposure that put Lehman Brothers at risk? What did Lehman Brothers seek from the regulators ? Was there a precedent for the request? What was the reasoning for the decision by the regulators and the government? What did the Federal government learn from the Lehman Brothers case that changed
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Chapter 17 covers the financial statement analysis and ratios. Financial statement analysis is the process of examining financial statements that will depict the financial position of the company allowing them to make better financial decisions. A typical financial statement consist of a balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and notes to account. The most common being the balance sheet and the income statement. The balance sheet, also referred to as a statement of financial positon, is usually made up of assets and liabilities and provides information about the financial position of the company. It is a two sided report, assets on one side, and liabilities on the other. Liabilities typically include accounts payable, accrues expenses, income tax owed, stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity (net worth), and loans. The income statement, also referred to the earning and loss statement, depicts the profitability of the company. It shows to total sales revenue for one year. The e xpenses the company incurs in producing finished good to sell is subtracted from the sales revenue. Also deducted is the operating cost expenses and the deprecation. When analyzing the income statement, it is important to note that the profitability isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just the total profit. It is important to look at the ratio of expenses as a percentage of profit. A company with high profits and high expenses could easily be mismanaged. However, balance sheets and income statements have little meaning byShow MoreRelatedPaper Ratio and Financial Statement Analysis2682 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesof Ratio and Financial Statement Analysis July 25, 2013 MGMT640 Executive Summary In corporate finance, both ratio and financial statement analysis are important tools that can be used in order to assess a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strength financially. 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Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not reaching success if you are not challenging yourself.Ã¢â¬ That is my new personal quote to live by after the OL 125 course. There were plenty of challenges during this term for me but, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give up. I ve learned so much about myself and have decided to make major changes due to the assessments and the knowledge gained from the chapters in Ã¢â¬Å"Human Relations in the OrganizationÃ¢â¬ book. From a previous course, I knew making a plan would be fundamental but never did put it on paper until now. I truly appreciate having to complete a Ã¢â¬Å"Personal Development PlanÃ¢â¬ because now my plan for success won t just be in my mind, but on paper and in a helpful format. Firstly, I knew ahead of the Burnout and Stress assessment that I was pretty stressed and out of it. Then, when I learned that my numbers were off the chart, I took a time out from my school work, etcetera to sit back and think deeply of my life. Putting myself in a state of relaxation, I thought about all the things that were going wrong around and within me. The thoughts were so depressing, but surprisingly, the first thing that came to mind was Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs theory. While studying motivating factors, I learned that I ranked my life in the same order of hierarchy. Remembering this, I then decided to do a check off of which needs have already been met. Even more depressing, I was only able to mark off one which was the physiological needs. I have the roof over my head and food at will but couldn tShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : Leadership Development Plan1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Frank Parise Leadership Development Plan Paper Week 7 Professor Kelley-Rodriquez 6/17/2015 Table of Contents Abstract Summary to Personal Mission Statement My leadership for the future follows a very distinctive path. 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ThroughoutRead More5 Written Assignment 5 Unit 5001V1 Revision 11020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInstitute Approved Centre Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management and Leadership Written Assessment Ã¢â¬â 5 Unit 5001V1 Instruction Sheet Assignment: Unit 5001V1 Ã¢â¬â Personal development as a manager and leader Level: 5 Lecturer: Ian Laing Date of Issue: 13th May 2015 Date Due In: 26th June 2015 Format: Word Document submitted to: firstname.lastname@example.org Assessment Outline CandidatesRead MoreEssay on Cmi 50011128 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesManagement amp; Leadership Unit 5001: Personal Development as a Manager and Leader Student Name: | | Delivery Partner: | | Country of Study: | | Date Assignment Submitted: | | Declaration Statement: By submitting this assignment for assessment, I am also confirming that the following report is the result of my own study and efforts. I understand that if this not the case, I will be putting at risk the successful completion of this qualification. 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Question: Describe about the Physical Performance of Different Dissolving Nanopatch Formulations? Answer: Abstract Nanopatch method of vaccination has been implemented now a day to provide a replacement over the standard methods, which includes delivery of the vaccine to the patient with the help of a needle. Nanopatch technology provides a cost-effective, needle-free and more precise way of delivering vaccine to evoke immunological responses. Nanopatches resembles a small chip with gold coated silicon wafers lined by numerous microneedles that penetrate the skin to administer the vaccine. Nanopatch formulation helps in the manufacture of proper nanopatches that are widely used for medical purpose. Formulation of nanopatches includes various fabrication techniques. Primarily nanopatches are fabricated with different sugar molecules like sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol and mannitol followed by FT-FIR analysis.The useful role of the various sugar molecules helped in determining the qualitative properties for a better understanding of the nanopatches properties, and the FT-FIR data assisted in identifying the amorphous and the crystalline nature of the nanopatches formulated. Rhodamine-dextran fluorescence method also helped in knowing about the morphological and physical changes from that of pure CMC dNPs. Furthermore, nanoindentation assisted in revealing information regarding the bulk properties of the various CMC sugar/polyol dNPs. The SEM images thus obtained helped in providing data regarding the surface property of the CMC/sugar polyol dNPs indicated by the presence of buckle structure. Keywords: nanopatches, vaccination, formulation, FT-FIR, SEM Biomedical Engineering Vaccination refers to the administration of an antigenic material in the form of a vaccine to stimulate the immune system of an individual for developing immunity against a particular pathogen or disease. Vaccination plays a vital role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases (Josefsberg and Buckland, 2012). The method of prevention includes administration of the vaccine, which primarily comprises of the active agent (inactive or attenuated form) of the antigens into individuals to develop an immunological response to a particular disease (Schild et al. 2015). The method of vaccination includes administration of the vaccine, which primarily consists of an efficient and safe injection of the vaccine (Knight-Jones et al. 2014). Apart from the traditional method of vaccination, in recent days, a new method of immunization has been implemented which is termed as Nanopatch (Fernando et al. 2012). Nanopatch aims to provide an efficient, optimized and differentiated needle-free vaccine delivery system, which tends to be safe and cost effective. Nanopatch technology refers to a pain-free vaccine delivery system to develop a protective immunological response using a dose, which is one-hundredth of the dose as required by the conventional mode of administration using a needle or syringe (Corrie, Depelsenaire and Kendall, 2012). Nanopatches are like small chips that are primarily made up of silicon (gold coated) wafers lined with infinite numbers of microneedles (Ravi, Sadhna and Chawla, 2015). The micro-needles are coated with specific vaccine that penetrates the top layer of the skin where special types of immune cells help the body to respond to a particular infection (McCaffrey, Donnelly and Mc Carthy, 2015). The given article helps us in understanding the physical performance of the different kinds of nanopatch formulations. The various formulations associated helps in the manufacture of moulds by suitable methods, which include dissolving of nanopatches (Fernando et al. 2012). The role of various types of sugar molecules related to the particular method has also been highlighted in the given article. Investigation of the crystalline structure of the nanopatches by applications of the particular biophysical technique also helps in developing knowledge regarding the structural and functional orientation of the respective nanopatches (Corrie, Depelsenaire and Kendall, 2012). Thus, the present article emphasizes on exploration and interpretation of the results associated with careful experimentation for developing knowledge and data regarding nanopatches formulation. Methodology Formulation of dissolving Nanopatches (dNPs) Fabrication of the nanopatches was initially done by the casting of the moulds using silicon nanopatch masters, placed into polydimethylsilicone (PDMS) and was then allowed to dry. Nanopatches were removed, and moulds were carefully placed in a 24 well plate with the addition of 50 l of a sugar-polyol formulation (Grande et al. 2013). The sugar molecules used as a component of the formulation included Sucrose, Trehalose, Sorbitol and Mannitol, which was mixed and centrifuged at 3000 g for 1 hour at 25C for delivering the sugar molecules into the projection moulds. The formulation was then left to dry. After proper drying up of the formulation, 50 l of 2.1 mM carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was added to the moulds. The moulds containing the dry beads were then placed in a sealed desiccator at 22 C under nitrogen thereby allowing the dNPs to dry up within 4-6 hours. Finally, the dNP array was stored in a sealed desiccator under nitrogen at 22 C. The arrays were safely removed and were then analyzed using a stereo microscope. The table given below outlines the weight-to-weight ratio of CMC to sugar/polyol formulation in association with the given study 1:1 1 : 1.25 1 : 1.7 1 : 2.5 1 : 3.3 1 : 3.75 1 : 5 1 : 6.25 1 : 6.7 1 : 7.5 1 : 8.3 1 : 10 1 : 12.5 1 : 15 1 : 20 1 : 25 1 : 30 Table 1: Comparative w/w CC: sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol or mannitol Nanoindentation The method was applied for measuring deflection in projection by applying force on individual projection (mainly at the top). Thus, a cylindrical probe (40m diameter) was applied in axial direction onto the dNP projections. 10l of sugar/polyol formulation were mixed with the moulds for studying the fluorescence microscopy (Lua et al. 2014). Rhodamine-dextran (M/W 3000 g) was added to the solution with a final concentration of 0.1mg/mL. To compare the delivery of the dNPs, C14 radiolabelled ovalbumin protein was used to trace the dNP formulations. C14 ovalbumin solution was prepared in such a way that each mould received 10 l of the solution with a minimum of 25 nCi14 C ovalbumin. Analysis of dNP formulations using synchrotron radiation by FT-FIR Fourier transform infrared (FT-FIR) spectroscopy helps in detection of the microcrystalline nature of the associated dNP samples. The use of synchtron radiation helps in analyzing the sugar/CMC formulations at a much higher resolution (Kunz, 2013) Sample preparation was done by pipetting 100 l of each sample into three copies on the surface of a glass slide wrapped with parafilm. The formulations were then allowed to dry overnight in a desicattor, thereby storing in desiccated, sealed container. In context to the present study, the Autsralian Synchroton was used. Results Studying the morphology of the dNPs formulated In order to determine the potentiality of the sugar/polyols for dNPs, sugar/polyol and CMC with varying w/w ratio were fabricated (Figure-2). Previous reports suggested that in case of only CMC, dNPs formed uniform structures (Figure-2a). In contrast to the given phenomena, addition of sucrose to the CMC resulted in the formation of brittle, clear, glassy material dNPs (Figure-2b). It has also been observed that an increase in the concentration of the sucrose resulted in the formation of more brittle dNPs. A similar trend was also observed in case of trehalose, which also resulted in formation of brittle dNPs (Figure-2c). However keeping the w/w ratio of trehalose: CMC as low as 2.5:1, resulted in formation of large opaque crystal dNPs (Figure 2c inset). Thus, addition of trehalose resulted in changing the normal morphology of the dNPs. On the other hand, the addition of sorbitol to the CMC formulation resulted in the formation of clear and highly malleable dNPs with varying macroscopic properties (Figure 2d). However with the increase in the concentration of sorbitol, the malleability of the dNPs produced decreased though the dNPs did not become completely rigid and the same morphological projection was maintained at all w/w ratio of sorbitol: CMC. In case of mannitol, the addition of the sugar to the CMC resulted in formation of large crystals at all w/w ratios (even at 1:1 ratio), thus no suitable dNP projections were observed, and hence mannitol was excluded from the given experiment. Figure-2.Images showing the morphological features of the dNPs: a) Uniform solid dNPs was produced in case only CMC b) Brittle dNPs produced in case of sucrose/CMC c) Very brittle dNPs produced in case of trehalose/CMC d) Ductile and highly malleable dNPs formed in case of sorbitol/ CMC Nanoindentation In order to verify that CMC sugar/polyp formulation was not displaced, 3000 MW fixable rhodamine-dextran was added to the respective sugar/polyp formulation. The morphology of the resultant dNPs was then observed by analyzing under a fluorescence confocal microscope, which helped in verifying the rhodamine-dextran formulation. It was observed that the rhodamine-dextran mixture remained within the projection for each formulation case (Figure 3 a-d). The dNPs thus produced were applied to the skin and arrows indicated the projections (Varughese et al. 2013). Thus, it can be clearly stated that the addition of the sugar/polyols into the CMC lead to the formation of dNPs with significant morphological and physical changes in comparison to the dNPs produced in case of pure CMC (Davey, Schroeder and ter Horst, 2013). Figure-3.Fluroscence confocal images of dNPs fabricated with rhodamine dextran and different CMC/sugar formulations a) Only CMC b) 10:1 w/w ratio of sucrose to CMC c) 10:1 w/w ratio of trehalose to CMC d) 30:1 w/w ratio of sorbitol to CMC FT-FIR Analysis The present analysis helped in determining the crystalline nature of the dNP formulations (Winick and Doniach, 2012). Crystalline structures resulted in formation of defined peaks. The pure CMC samples did not produce any suitable peak and hence are considered amorphous (figure 4a). However, crystalline peaks were observed when sorbitol was added to formulation (figure 4b) but at a specific ratio of 3.3:1, no such crystalline peaks were detected. This indicated that decrease in the concentration of sorbitol resulted in overlapping of the peaks (Liu et al. 2015). In case of trehalose two distinct peaks were observed (figure 4c) while in case of sucrose no such peaks were observed at any w/w ratio (figure 4d) Figure 4.FT-FIR analysis of the CMCs. a) CMC (no peaks) b) Sorbitol and CMC c) Trehalose and CMC d) Sucrose and CMC Study of the projections Three distinct failures of projection were observed which were analyzed using SEM (figure 6) (Sohda et al. 2014). Failure in bending of the tip was observed due to initial bending of the tip (figure 6 b, c, and f). Failure due to buckling was observed in cases where projections show that the material has bent (figure 6a). Finally bending of the projection over one another resulted in failure due tp brittleness (figure 6 d, g and h). Figure 6.SEM images showing of the projections. a)Only CMC b) 1:1 sucrose-CMC c) 10:1 sucrose-CMC d) 1:1 trehalose-CMC e) 10:1 trehalose-CMC f)1:1 sorbitol: CMC g) 5:1 sorbitol: CMC h) 30:1 sorbitol: CMC [all in w/w ratio] Discussion Application of Nanopatch technology provides a significant benefit over the old conventional methods of vaccination. The Nanopatch technology is associated with the introduction of first efficient and specific needle-free administration of the vaccine to specific cells, which evokes a rapid immunological response in response to a particular disease. Discussion on the present topic includes an understanding of the designing framework of the nanopatches. The Nanopatches are designed in such a way that it resembles a small chip primarily made up of gold-silicon wafer, which is lined with numerous numbers of small needles over which the vaccines are coated. Thus, nanopatches help in delivering an effective volume of the required vaccine to the respective target cells. To understand the designing framework of the respective nanopatches in association with the medical world, the formulation process associated with the manufacture of the dNPs needs to be carefully studied. The technological aspect of the nanopatches plays a vital role in developing insight knowledge regarding the associated methods and biophysical techniques involved in the formulation process. Discussion on the given topic primarily emphasizes on the interpretation of the results observed by the given article. The results obtained helped in analyzing the change in the morphology of the respective dNPs produced in association with the sugar/polyol CMC with supporting data from the respective FT-FIR data and SEM images. Formation of the dNPs from only CMC do not lead to the formation of uniform reliable structure, but contrastingly addition of various sugar/polyol to the CMC produced a marked change in the structural orientation of the respective dNPs thus produced. The addition of different sugar/polyol resulted in the formation of different kinds of dNPs. This suggests that addition of different sugar molecules produces a marked effect on the resultant dNPs formed. The concentration of the sugar/polyp also plays a vital role in producing a change in the structure of the resultant dNPs. While the addition of sucrose at any given w/w ratio resulted in the formation of brittle dNPs, decreasing the trehalose: CMC ratio resulted in the formation of large opaque crystalline structure. Hence, it can be stated that trehalose at low concentration is able to crystallize with a large number of nucleation event, which results in the growth of crystals and thereby contributes to the change in the morphology of the dNPs. On the other hand, sorbitol addition to the CMC resulted in the formation of completely different types dNPs, which were highly malleable. Significantly, it was observed that with the decrease in the concentration of sorbitol, the malleability increased and, therefore, it can be inferred that addition of sorbitol to the CMC resulted in adding a new dimension to the formed dNPs. The physical and morphological changes thus produced in the resultant dNPs was observed by using a fluorescence dye rhodamine-dextran. Rhodamine-dextran being fluorescent in nature helps in determining the amount of sugar/polyp being incorporated on the surface of each dissolving dNPs. Rhodamine-dextran binds to the sugar/polyol molecule and thus helps in determining the particular sugar/polyol that has been incorporated in the given formulation. The qualitative nature of the resulting dNP formulation is determined with the help of FT-FIR and thus helps in understanding about nature (amorphous or crystalline) of the resulting dNP formulations. A presence of defined peaks contributed to the crystalline nature of the formulation while the absence of such peaks suggests that the formulations are amorphous in nature. Thus after interpretation of the results, it can be discussed that the pure sample of CMC never formed defined peaks and hence are considered amorphous. While the addition of the corresponding sugar/polyp in to the CMC resulted in the formation of dNPs that produced defined peaks. Hence, the addition of the different sugar/polyol residues contributes to the crystalline nature of the resulting dNP formulation and depending upon the w/w ratio the nature of the dNP formulation changes accordingly. Although the addition of various sugar/polyol residues contributed to the crystalline nature of the resulting dNP, it is als o considered that with the change in the w/w ratio the nature of the formulation also changed. For example, the addition of sorbitol resulted in the presence of defined peaks while at a ratio below 3.3:1 no real peaks were observed. Similar trends were also observed in the case of the other sugar residues, which resulted in the formation of a high peak at given ratio, and with the decrease in the ratio, no such peaks are observed. Thus, the FT-FIR data analysis helped in validating the qualitative results. It can be also stated that those sugar molecules that are already crystalline in nature o not produce any peaks in the case when they were incorporated into the CMC and as a result the dNPs produce are amorphous in nature. Hence, the analysis provided accurate and reproducible information regarding the intermolecular interactions (amorphous and crystalline properties) of the complex heterogeneous (sugar-CMC) solid formulations. The method of Nanoindentation helped in providing information regarding the bulk properties of the associated dNPs formulations. Single projections were measured by applying a particular force, which helped in studying regarding the surface property of the formulated dNPs. Finally, it can be stated that the various kinds of projections observed under SEM produced images that help in the understanding of the distinct failures, which resulted in causing a deflection. The deflection produced primarily emphasizes on the projection that arises due to failure in bending of the tip, failure due to buckling and failure due to brittleness. References Corrie, S., Depelsenaire, A. and Kendall, M., 2012. Introducing the nanopatch: a skin-based, needle-free vaccine delivery system.Australian Biochemist,43(3), pp.17-20. Davey, R.J., Schroeder, S.L. and ter Horst, J.H., 2013. Nucleation of organic crystalsa molecular perspective.Angewandte Chemie International Edition,52(8), pp.2166-2179. Fernando, G.J., Chen, X., Primiero, C.A., Yukiko, S.R., Fairmaid, E.J., Corbett, H.J., Frazer, I.H., Brown, L.E. and Kendall, M.A., 2012. Nanopatch targeted delivery of both antigen and adjuvant to skin synergistically drives enhanced antibody responses.Journal of Controlled Release,159(2), pp.215-221. 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Question: Discuss about the Security Managerial Conceptual Framework. Answer: Introduction: XYZ Immigration and education consultant company has an IT governance framework which comprises of leadership, IT policies, and organizational structure to ensure its IT capabilities sustain its operations and objectives. Leadership in the company in the context of IT involves a team of IT experts who play a key role in aligning the companys IT capabilities with its strategies. This team works in tandem with the company management to develop IT policies which defines the rules and regulations for use of IT assets. IT policy document is a critical component of the companys IT governance framework which outlines IT policies followed in the company (Veiga, 2007). These IT policies cover various IT aspects including use of IT assets, management of IT systems, roles and responsibilities of the managers, risk management, etc. The company also has an organization structure which different several management levels involved in decision-making. The structure includes top company managers, IT managers, and employees. Company and IT managers collaborate to make informed IT decisions while employees contribute to the decision-making process through feedback. As a junior business analyst, my main job is to evaluate and analyze business data, create solutions, and integrate business mode with the technology available. This role requires adherence to Australian standard for corporate governance which assists in managing risk during implementation and use of IT (Council, 2007). Recently, I was requested by the manager to conduct research on industry trends and use data modelling practices to analyze results and suggest strategies that could be adopted to improve the companys operations. In this case, I had to leverage on various IT tools to collect data, perform analysis, and make informed decisions when creating the strategies. In this role, I adhered to the Australian standard by ensuring the IT tools used performed well. I assessed the tools to ensure they are fit for the purpose of supporting the organization and kept them responsive to the changing requirements. I ensured that the data collection and analysis process conformed to formal rules and complied with the companys policies. Also, I aligned the tools with the business requirements and the current needs of the people involved in the process. Recently, I did a task which involved analyzing company data to identify business trends that could give insight into companys competitiveness. The aim of this task was to obtain knowledge on business trends that could be leveraged to enhance the companys strategies. In this task, I had to access the companys financial information including sales generated, profits made, revenue generated, costs incurred, etc. Most of this information is classified as confidential by the company and the IT policies require privacy to be maintained when handling such information. In this task, I had to comply with the Privacy Act of 1988. This Act regulates handling of personal information including its collection and disclosure (Alfawaz, 2008). The financial information include personal information of individuals who had purchased from the company. I adhered to this legislation by maintaining the privacy of confidentiality of the information I handled. This involved de-identifying personal informatio n and using secure tools to safeguard the data from malicious people. References Alfawaz, S., May, L.J. and Mohannak, K., 2008. E-government security in developing countries: A managerial conceptual framework. Council, A.C.G., 2007. Corporate governance principles and recommendations. Veiga, A. D., Eloff, J. H. (2007). An information security governance framework.Information Systems Management,24(4), 361-372.